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roda, 08 lutego 2006

Rafał Wójcik

Poznań University Library
(Main Library of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań,
Old and Rare Books Section, Special Collection Division)

Tekst ukazał się w:

Humanities in New Europe. Vol. 2. Kaunas 2007, s. 145-155.

The Art of Memory at Cracow Academy
at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century

The article outlines the history of the art of memory at Cracow Academy at the turn of the sixteenth century. The author focuses, besides mentioning the results of research query in manuscripts and old books at the Library of the Jagiellonian University, on presenting profiles of teachers of mnemonics at Cracow Academy in the years 1469-1527. Beside foreign teachers, such as Jacobus Publicius, Konrad Celtes, Thomas Murner and Johannes Cusanus, Polish teachers in the field, such as the Francisians (OFM Reg. Obs.) Stanisław Korzybski and Antoni of Radomsko, and Jan Szklarek, are also presented. The article gives also additional information on the printed mnemonic treatise from 1504 Opusculum de arte memorativa by Jan Szklarek.
Tradition has it that it was Simonides of Keos (Ceos) who invented the system of mnemonics designed to improve memory and the ease of recollection around the sixth century BC. In fact, various tricks to assist fallible memory have been in use since day immemorial. It is impossible to describe the innumerable methods that mnemonics encompasses. Almost each and every man has developed more or less complicated mnemonic system for his or her use and makes use of it occasionally. The first known evidence of techniques assisting our memory are to be found as early as the Aurignac culture, traces of it can also be discerned, as Walter J. Ong points out,  in the civilizations of the ancient Middle East, and in all other oral cultures[i]. Mnemonic tricks helped Homer to keep things properly ordered in his memory. It was precisely mnemonics concerns, with their persistent aspiration to put some order and a reasonable division of knowledge of the world that surrounds us, that led to the first appearance of encyclopaedias[ii].
The real breakthrough in the history of the art of memory was marked by the aforementioned “invention” by Simonides of Keos (Ceos) (c. 556-468 BC) of the principles that were to govern the systematic mnemonics. The Greek poet was the inventor of the first system of mnemonic topoi or places. The common opinion is that he taught the principles based on the earlier oral traditions which were supposed to be either of Pytagorean or Egyptian origin[iii].  However, the sources and research in classical art of memory agree that it was Simonides who created a core system, that in multifarious variations, reappears in all subsequent treatises on rhetoric and mnemonics. Classical treatises include, for instance, the anonymous work entitled Rhetorica ad Herennium, Cicero’s De oratore, and Institutio oratoria by Quintilian. All three had an enormous influence upon shaping the theory of ars memorativa in the Middle Ages.
From the invention of mnemonic principles by Simonides, the history of the art of memory ran along two separate courses. For Simonides, in fact, codified the rules governing mnemonics which, in the course of time, were incorporated into the general theory taught to students of rhetoric[iv]. In this form, it made its way into medieval treatises on mnemonics. The other course taken in mnemonics lasted without variation since pre-Simonidean times. In a subconscious way, it lingered on in poetry, rhymes, proverbs, rhyming calendars (cisioiani), and even in the ways designed to memorize chant melodies[v].
In Poland, one can draw a distinct dividing line in the history of the book, and at the same time, in the classical art of memory, which is marked by the establishment of a university in Cracow. >From the beginning of Polish statehood until 1364, or, to be more exact, to the restoration of the university by Queen Jadwiga in 1400, the narrow circle of readers was composed mainly of court and church elite. This had changed slightly in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries – thanks to the activity of mendicant friars of the Franciscan and Dominican orders. After the university was founded, the circle of those interested in written works was enlarged and included lower clergy, academics, students, officials, the magnates, nobility and patricians. The expanded group of people interested in books caused, after 1400, more books and codices to be either brought to Poland, or to be produced in the country. This explains the disproportionately small number of manuscripts coming from the first four centuries of the existence of Polish state in relation to the number of manuscripts originated and imported to the country after the foundation of the Cracow Academy. Mnemonic treatises were mainly read by two groups of readers – monks from the mendicants’ and preachers’ congregations, i.e. the Franciscans and the Dominicans, and by students of the Academy. The origination of the first Polish university caused, in a natural way, a rising interest in mnemonics in Cracow which may be proven by the content of codices kept at the Library of the Jagiellonian University. Though it has not been possible so far for the present writer to find any specific copy of a medieval treatise that would have dealt directly with the art of memory, there are a dozen treatises written by classical authors that include the issues of memory, and the process of remembering. Moreover, it was possible to trace some poems whose aim was to assist the process of memorizing the contents of the Gospel, the names of books of the Old and New Testament, the names of saints and the days under their patronage, medical and legal issues and cisioiani[vi]. Mnemotechnics was in operation at the Academy in handbooks, in codices kept in the Jagiellonian Library, but also in private book collections of professors of the Academy[vii].
The presence of the art of memory at the Cracow Academy is well corroborated by references clearly stating that lectures in this particular subject had been in the syllabuses of the Academy. Regrettably, not much this evidence has been preserved until our times. We know, however, the names of seven teachers in the art of memory from the years 1469-1529 who lectured in Cracow. They were (in chronological order): Jacobus Publicius (1469/1470)[viii], Stanisław Korzybski (1470/1471), Antoni of Radomsko (between 1461-1480, probably the 1470s), Konrad Celtes (1489-1491), Tomasz Murner (1506-1508), Jan Szklarek (c. 1476, 1503-1509?), and Johannes Kusanus (1529). Let me first sketch a portrait of the foreign teachers and then pass on to the Francisians (OFM Regulae Observantiae) – Stanisław Korzybski and Antoni of Radomsko. Finally, I shall present briefly the work and the profile of Jan Szklarek, a prominent Franciscan writer, the author of the only medieval mnemonic treatise published in Poland.
Jacobus Publicius[ix] was the first foreign teacher that reached Cracow in his wanderings around Europe. He had been the author of many treatises devoted to rhetoric and to the art of composing letters, and was one of the first itinerant humanists in Europe.
Publicius stayed in Poland for only a few months, but there are many indications that he played a significant role in disseminating classical mnemotechnics within the circles of scholars and students of the Academy as well as in propagating the ideas of early humanism. He appended a supplement,  the chapter entitled De arte memorativa, to his work Oratoriae artis epitomata published in Venice in 1482[x]. It is very likely that this is the first printed mnemonic treatise. There is no doubt that Publicius had been dealing with the art of memory long before this publication. This may be proved by a manuscript from 1460 written by Thomas Swatwell and discovered in the British Museum. Swatwell was probably a monk from Durham and he rewrote the Publicius’s treatise in the monastery making slight corrections and distortions in some places[xi]. This sheds light on Publicius’s lectures in Cracow, for it proves that Publicius, though he published his work twelve years after his position in Cracow, had, in fact, been engaged in of the art of memory much earlier, and certainly prior to his arrival in Cracow. Accordingly, it is likely that he propagated his own art of memory while he was in Poland.
Opinions on the treatise are divided. The Spanish humanist was met with accusations that the style of his work was clumsy and inconsistent and that he did not know classical treatises, such as Ad Herennium, or Cicero’s and Quintilian’s[xii], as well as that he adhered too closely to classical guidelines[xiii]. Despite the “clumsy style” the work of Publicius was very popular in the fifteenth and at the beginning of the sixteenth century which can be proved by a great number of copies in various codices originated throughout Europe[xiv]. The presence of his works in Poland and interest in them is proved by a codex currently kept at the Ossolinski National Institute in Wrocław[xv]. Walenty of Zielona Góra, most likely the first owner of the manuscript, studied at Cracow University. Later he was known to be an Augustian monk and a canon in a Hungarian village of Vac (Wacz)[xvi]. In this manuscript, the mnemonic treatise signed Wacie in profesto trinitatis (k. 168r-171r) is placed near a Publicius treatise (fol. 174r-200r)[xvii] and some illustrations of game cards, also used in mnemonics[xviii]. Guideline summaries included at the end of Publicius’ work show that  the treatise was intended to be a lecture.
About 1489, Konrad Celtes (actually, Konrad Pickel or Bickel)[xix], one of the most famous humanists of the end of the 15th century, came to Cracow. Celtes lectured outside the University, as he was not in position to lecture within the University walls, having no suitable title. His lecture included the art of writing letters and rhetoric. He himself, in his Viennese intimata, promotes his own lectures. The lectures he gave in Cracow in 1489 were similar to those given in Vienna. It cannot be ruled out that, apart from the art of composing letters, he also taught mnemonics. It is obvious that Celtes knew the art of memory, was interested in it, and discussed it with scholars and men of learning from Cracow. Prominent masters of the Academy, with whom he founded the first humanistic society in Poland Sodalitas Vistulana, were among his closest friends[xx]. It is highly probable, considering his self-assertiveness, that his work published in 1492 (probably in Ingolstadt) Epitoma in utramque Ciceronis rhetoricam cum arte memorativa nova et modo epistolandi utlissimo[xxi] was known in Cracow. Beside the epitomy of Cicero’s rhetoric, the book also includes an alphabetum memorativum[xxii]. Celtes’ treatise is characterized by his turning back to architectural mnemonic images and the use of mnemonic alphabet.
Thomas Murner came to Cracow in 1499. The very same year, during the winter term 1499/1500, he enrolled the University and, subsequently, received his bachelor’s degree (baccalaureate) in theology. Then, he went for his second tour around Europe. In 1506 he reappeared in Poland, this time as a teacher. His special line in lecturing and the subject of his lectures was the logic of teaching according to the medieval treatise Parva logicalia by Peter of Spain, a work very popular at the then European universities. The subject might have not been liked much by students who had had enough of relatively boring scholastics. (This is the period shortly after the first of many crises in the history of the University caused by humanists, whose activity coincided with Celtes’ presence in Cracow. Murner himself considered the Parva logicalia to be lacking in certain departments. To make his lectures more interesting, Murner decided to diversify the teaching with the introduction of special cards[xxiii]. Possibly, as it is noted by Bauch, the example for him had been set by a French supporter of the Reformation,  Jacobus Faber Stapulensis (Jacque Le Fevre d’Etaples)[xxiv]. In this way, the Francisian made a reference to the tradition of mnemonic imaging so popular at the end of the century. Murner came to a conclusion that it was time to combine the pleasant with the useful. Students loved to play cards and dice, which was strongly condemned by the University’s authorities and by the clergy who, occasionally, indulged in the very same sinful entertainment[xxv]. Murner came to a conclusion that the two things could be mixed together and each figure from the treatise assigned a card with a mnemonic image. Beside the picture, the cards had numbers referring to a section of the handbook where a given issue was treated. Having drawn out a cart with an image of, for instance, the Moon, the student had to say what he knew about the subject expositio; if his choice was the Heart, he had to recite all he knew on the subject suppositio, and so on. The invention was met with such admiration that Murner was awarded with 24 ducats and was admitted as member of academic professors. In 1507, Murner published a little book known as Chartiludium logicae in the printing house of Jan Haller. Regrettably, no copy of the book has been preserved until our times.
Murner’s invention had many imitators, especially in the seventeenth century, when Europe was swarmed with various decks of cards for teaching purposes, as the trend was to go back to pictorial teaching[xxvi]. Stefano della Bella’s etchings with four different “games” were used by the six-year-old king Louis XIV to learn the history of the royal monarchy in France, famous queens, geography and Metamorphoses. Genealogy was taught in a similar way, the same was true of heraldry, and, in the eighteenth century, cards made by Daniel Chodowiecki were used to teach alphabet[xxvii].
Probably the last foreign teacher of mnemonics in Cracow (in its medieval form) was Johannes Kusanus, or Cusanus. He was one of many itinerant professors – humanists who came to Cracow. However, slowly but steadily the demise of Cracow University became more and more conspicuous, and fewer and fewer prominent scholars from abroad came to Cracow. Kusanus was one of the last ones to come. He turned up in Cracow, probably in 1529, and the same year he was admitted to the group of professors of Cracow Academy. As he himself put it, in an address to the professors of Collegium Maius, he had spent twenty seven years on journeys around Europe and visited in different European universities. His special line of interest was not only teaching the art of memory, but also included the “family tree” (arbor consanguinitatis), on which he lectured. This is corroborated by a published legal material printed in Maciej Szarfenberg’s printing house as early as 1529[xxviii]. A dozen years later he appeared in Cracow to teach Polish students the genealogical tree. Most probably, he also seized an opportunity  to lecture on mnemonics at the same time, though there is no evidence of that.
Lectures on mnemonics were also given by Polish professors. Surprisingly and astonishingly, all well-known teachers in mnemonics of Polish origin teaching at the turn of the sixteenth century were closely associated with the Franciscan (Observant) order. The order gave many professors to Cracow Academy. The fact that it is from it that most prominent representatives of medieval mnemonics in Poland came, can be traced with two factors. Firstly, the Franciscans were a preaching order and, consequently, were in a naturally interested in an art facilitating memorizing sermons, which aided preaching. Secondly, from the outset of their activity in Poland, the Observant Franciscan Order supplied at least three lecturers at Cracow Academy, and their presence there coincided with the period of enormous interest in the art of memory at the University.
The first Polish lecturer in mnemonics at the University that we know by name was Stanisław Korzybski, a.k.a. Stanisław of Korzyb (Stanislaus de Corzep, Corzip). He was considered to have been an excellent preacher and, moreover, was willing to share his expertise and experience in catechizing brothers and laymen with other clergymen. He might have attended Jacobus Publicius’s lectures for, during the stay of the latter in Cracow, he himself taught mnemonics[xxix]. In October 1470, a dispute between Stanisław and a student Albert of Koło broke out as to settling a claim against the latter of not paying due charges for attending lectures on ars memorativa. The sentence that was passed was favourable for Stanisław, and thus we are in position, thanks to the legal record in question, to establish with certainty that he gave lectures on mnemonics in Cracow. Nothing more is known about his other activities in the art of memory.
            From among the lecturers in mnemonics in medieval Cracow, Antoni of Radomsko is the most controversial one. Jan of Komorowo writes that he was a graduate of the Paris university where he had received his master’s degree, and a man with remarkable and admirable knowledge, who worked on the art of memory at the University, wrote relevant papers and lectured with the “admiration of masters”. J. D. Janocki, after Lukas Wadding, wondered if Antonius Radunszic had been the author of the treatise Opusculum de arte memorativa published in Kasper Hochfeder’s printing house[xxx]. However, totally different information on the book is given by the very same author in another place, attributing the authorship of the book to Jan Szklarek[xxxi]. It is worth mentioning here that Antoni, similarly to Stanisław Korzybski, was famous for his sermons – continue predicabat ferventer et devote[xxxii], which immediately suggests the hypothesis that the Franciscans, being considered excellent orators, also took interest in mnemonics.
            From among the Franciscans that dealt with the art of memory in Cracow, Jan Szklarek is the one that we know most about. All sources unanimously confirm that Szklarek was an excellent preacher and orator. He himself, in his preface to his Opusculum de art memorativa mentions his twenty-two year preaching practice, saying: “cuius [scil. memoriae] fructum ego expertus sum a vigintiduobus annis, quotidianis more ordinis occupatus sermonibus at populum, quolibet festo bis[xxxiii]. Unfortunately, we know no set of sermons that could be ascribed to him. He will only be remembered for his three works that have been preserved until our times. The first one is Summula aurea brevissima de profectu noviciorum, or a handbook for novices[xxxiv]. The second is an essay on the incipit De calcibus, devoted to the use of valuable calices and monstrances[xxxv]. We also know five stanzas authored by Jan Szklarek[xxxvi]. This very short mnemonic poem gives in a shortened form the most important principles that friars should adhere to.
            However, the most important work written by Szklarek is undoubtedly Opusculum de arte memorativa. In the history of Polish printing, Opusculum… has a special place. Firstly, this is the oldest early-printed Polish illustrated book with plentiful woodcuts. Secondly, the Latin text includes a dozen of Polish words[xxxvii]. Finally, the printing has a fundamental significance for the research into mnemonics in Poland at the turn of the sixteenth century[xxxviii].
            Most probably, classes in the art of memory were optional for students who were obliged to pay separately for their attendance, which might be corroborated by the aforementioned argument between Stanisław Korzybski and the student Albert of Koło. However, the lectures enjoyed enormous popularity and shortages in suitable staff were bitterly felt[xxxix]. There were no unified syllabuses for students. Each teacher had his own preferences and his own method of both teaching, and the use of the art of memory in practice. Most probably all classes had either a form of a lecture or practice exercises (drills). Unfortunately, there is no evidence whether there were classes during which students had to use previously learned methods of memorizing. It seems, however, that at least Murner made his students actively participate in his classes.
(With thanks to Paul Radziłowski)

[i] Ong W.J., Orality and Literacy. The Technologizing of the Word. New Accents. Ed. Terence Hawkes. New York 1988.

[ii] Cf.: Rivers K., Memory, Divison and Organisation of Knowledge in the Middle Ages. In: Pre-modern Encyclopaedic Texts. Proceedings of the Second COMERS Congress, Groningen, 1-4 July 1996. Ed. by  P. Binkley. Leiden 1997, p. 147-158.

[iii] Yates F.A., Sztuka pamięci. Translated by W. Radwański, afterword by L. Szczucki. Warszawa 1977, p. 51, ibidem references.

[iv] Volkmann R., Wprowadzenie do retoryki Greków i Rzymian. Translated by L. Bobiatyński . Warszawa 1995, p. 189.

[v] Treitler L., Homer i Grzegorz, czyli jak dokonywał się przekaz poezji epickiej i chorału. Translated by C. Zych, Part I, Canor, No 28, Toruń 2000, p. 14-18; Part II, Canor , No 29, Toruń, p. 10-24 (originally the article appeared in The Musical Quarterly, Vol LX, No 3, July 1974.

[vi] Wójcik  R., “Opusculum de arte memorativa” Jana Szklarka. Bernardyński traktat mnemotechniczny z 1504 roku (Diss.) Poznań 2005, p. 54-58.

[vii] Szelińska W., Biblioteki profesorów Uniwersytetu Krakowskiego w XV I początkach XVI wieku. Wrocław 1966.

[viii] The dates given in parenthesis indicate the years of their activity in giving lectures in the art of memory at the Academy.

[ix] Cf. works on Publicius: Aretin J.C., Systematische Anleitung zur Theorie und Praxis der Mnemonik, nebst den Grundlinien zur Geschichte und Kritik dieser Wissenschaft. Sultzbach 1810, pp. 130-132; Hajdu H., Das mnemotechnische Schrifttum des Mittelalters. Wien 1936, p. 109-110; Yates F.A., op. cit., p. 118-120 ; on the Publicius’ treatise and its reception in Germany: Heimann-Seelbach S., Ars und scientia. Genese. Überlieferung und Funktionen der mnemotechnischen Traktatliteratur in 15. Jahrhundert. Mit Edition und Untersuchung dreier deutscher Traktate und ihrer lateinischen Vorlagen. Tübingen 2000, p. 116-132.

[x] Publicius Jacobus, Artes orandi,  epistolandi, memorandi. Venezia, Erh. Ratdolt, 20.12.1482.

[xi] Volkmann L., Ars memorativa. Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien. N.F. “Sonderheft“ 30, Vienna, 1936, p. 145. 

[xii] Aretin J.C. von, op. cit., p. 132. 

[xiii] Hajdu H., op. cit., p. 110.

[xiv] Careful juxtapositon of the codices and a discussion on the content of the treatise and the influence of Publicius upon younger authors of the art of memory in: Heimann-Seelbach S., op. cit., p. 117-132.

[xv] MS 724/1, paper codex, 209 pages in quarto, multiple authors, written in 15th and 16th century, originally the owner was most likely Walenty Werner of Zielona Góra (Valentius de Grunpergk)

[xvi] Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters. Verfasserlexicon. Hrgs. von K. Langosch, Bd. IV, Berlin 1953, p. 668

[xvii] Cf.: Katalog rękopisów Biblioteki Zakładu Nar. Im. Ossolińskich. Ed. by W. Kętrzyński. T.H. Lwów 1898, p. 231-232.

[xviii] Cf.: Thomas Murner’s treatise Chartiludium logicae. Lipsiae 1509.

[xix] On Celtes see: Conradi Celtis quae Vindobonae prelo subicienda curavit opuscula. Ed. K. Adel. Lipsiae 1966; Rupprich H., Der Briefwechsel des Konrad Celtes. Muenchen 1934; Koźmian S., Konrad Celtes. Poznań 1869; Jelicz A., Konrad Celtes na tle współczesnego renesansu w Polsce. Warszawa 1956; Ziomek J., Renesans. Wyd. V poprawione. Warszawa 1997, p. 79-81, incl. bibliography on Celtes and his Sodalitas litteraria Vistulana, p. 470; Worstbrock F.J., Die Brieflehre des Konrad Celtis. Textgeschichte und Autorschaft. (In: Philologie als Kulturwissenschaft. Festschrift Karl Stackmanm. Hg. Von V.L. Grenzmann, H. Herkommer, D. Wuttke. Goettingen 1987. p. 242-270.

[xx] On Sodalitatis circle, cf. Gansiniec R., Wkład czołowych przedstawicieli ziemi śląskiej w kształtowanie się myśli poznawczej i literatury polskiej. In: Odrodzenie w Polsce. Vol. II, Warszawa 1956.

[xxi] Epitoma in Ciceronis Rhetoricas etc., [Ingolstadt, Typ. Celtis, post 28 III 1492].

[xxii] On Celtes’ treatise see: Aretin J.C. von, op. cit., p. 143-146; Hajdu H., op. cit., p. 150-116; Ars und scientia, p. 133-140; no records in Yates.

[xxiii] Hoffmann D., Die Welt der Spielkarte. Eine Kulturgeschichte. München 1972, p. 38; see also Sieber L., Thomas Murner und sein juristisches Kartenspiel. In: “Beiträge zur vaterländischen Geschichte“. Hg. von der Historischen Gesellschaft in Basel. Bd. 10. Basel 1875, p. 273-316.

[xxiv] Bauch G., op. cit., p. 58

[xxv] On the game of dice and its significance in medieval society: Tauber W., Das Würfenspiel im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit. Eine kultur- und sprachgeschichtliche Darstellung. Frankfurt am Main 1987, with a particularly interesting chapter entitled Das Würfenspiel in der mittelalterlichen Gesellschaft, p. 19-34.

[xxvi] Hoffmann D., op. cit., p. 38-43

[xxvii] Chodowiecki also illustrated educational juvenile books written by Johann Bernhard Basedow.

[xxviii] Cusanus Joannes, Textus lecture quatuor arborum, consanguinitatis, affinitatis, cognationis spiritualis, ac legalis: a Joanne Cusano ex diuersis harum arborum scriptoribus nouiter, clare at compendiose congestus. Cracoviae, per Matthiam Szarffenbergk, imprensis Marci Szarffenbergk, 1529.

[xxix] He might have started his teaching shortly after Publicius’ departure from Cracow. The record indicating his lectures comes from the times when the Spaniard had already left.

[xxx] Janocki J.D., Nachricht von denen in der hochgräflich-Zaluskischen Bibliothek sich befindenen raren polnischen Büchern. Vol 1, Dresden 1747, p. 84.

[xxxi] Janocki J.D., Ianociana sive clarorum atque illustrium Poloniae auctorum maecenatmque memoriae miscellae. Vol II. Varsaviae et Lipsiae 1779I, p. 79.

[xxxii]  Jan z Komorowa, Memoriale Ordinis Fratrum Minorum. In: Momenta Poloniae Historica. Vol. V, Lwów 1888. , p. 257.

[xxxiii] [Jan Szklarek], Opusculum de arte memorativa. Kraków, [Kasper Hochfeder], 13.09.1504, k.a1.

[xxxiv] Known from two manuscripts: cf.: Friedberg H., Rodzina Vitreatorów (Zasańskich) i jej związki z Uniwersytetem Krakowskim na przełomie XV i XVI w. “Biuletyn Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej”, R. 18 (1966), nr 1, p. 23.

[xxxv] Kantak, K. Sylwetki bernardynów poznańskich. Jan Szklarek. “Kronika Miasta Poznania” Vol. VI, 1928, p. 326-327.

[xxxvi] The verses have been preserved on the front page of the incunabulum Anima fidelis by Jan de Vingle; cf.: Kantak K., Z poezji bernardyńskiej w XV I XVI. “Pamiętnik Literacki”, R. XXVIII, 1931, p. 417.

[xxxvii]  Wydra W., Rzepka R.W.: Niesamoistne drukowane teksty polskie sprzed roku 1521 i ich znaczenie dla historii drukarstwa i języka polskiego. In: Dawna książka i kultura. Materiały międzynarodowej sesji naukowej z okazji pięćsetlecia sztuki drukarskiej w Polsce. Ed. by S. Grzeszczuk and A. Kawecka-Gryczowa. Wrocław 1975, p. 265.

[xxxviii]   Annotated edition of the treatise and the Polish translation and commentary: Wójcik R., “Opusculum de arte memorativa” Jana Szklarek. Bernardyński traktat mnemotechniczny z 1504 roku (MA Thesis), Poznań 2005.

[xxxix]  Opusculum, f. a2.

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